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Perhaps not too well known today, horseradish is a plant that has actually been in the area for more than a thousand years, and is native to nearby south-eastern Europe. Its diffusion also in the rest of the European territory is linked to its versatility and also to its beneficial properties, already known at the time, as evidenced by the many recipes based on horseradish. The plant's roots and rhizome are usually used, which are often found as aromas or seasonings in countless recipes handed down by local tradition. Among the main properties that, especially in the centuries ago, made it a precious plant, there is the strong presence of vitamin C: today taken simply to combat colds and seasonal flu or strengthen the immune system, in the past centuries it was an important resource against the scurvy, a dangerous disease caused precisely by the lack of vitamin C. Today, fortunately, horseradish has lost this primary function, but it remains an effective source of vitamins and a useful natural antibiotic. In cooking, horseradish is used for sauces intended to dress meats or salads, as the acrid taste is somewhat reminiscent of mustard. It is therefore a food that may not please everyone, but which is not only applied for internal use: it is in fact used today more frequently as a basis for the creation of effective products for external use, such as creams against sunburn and erythema. Despite its effectiveness, attention must be paid to consumption, which should not be carried out by people prone to gastrointestinal problems, which in this case could be acute.

Active ingredients and benefits

Among the main beneficial effects recognized to horseradish there is, as we have seen, the strong presence of vitamin C, which is optimal for the body and in particular for the immune system. But the benefits associated with this plant do not end there: horseradish can also prove to be an effective antibiotic, as well as an expectorant and purifier for the respiratory system. The horseradish purifier, of which rhizome and roots are mainly used, can also be useful for the digestive system, although, as we have seen, not suitable for all subjects. For external use, extracts of the plant are effective against erythema, burns and inflammation of the skin. Even in case of external use, however, it is necessary to be careful: subjects particularly sensitive to its components and its active ingredients could in fact develop a sense of nausea, headache, burning in the eyes. In this case it is necessary to suspend the treatment to start looking for an equally effective herbal remedy. Its use is also not recommended for pregnant women.


Although not particularly widespread, partly because it is a plant that does not offer particular decorative potential, horseradish is particularly simple to grow on our territory and does not require too much care and attention, partly because it originates from lands with similar characteristics and climates. to the Italian ones, partly because they are naturally able to adapt to different situations and conditions. The few conditions required are a sunny position and space to be able to grow the roots in depth: the development of horseradish is in fact such that vertical space in the ground is necessary, while on the surface only the leaves that grow from the top sprout and can be exploited. for salads and dressings. The roots are then usually harvested in autumn, with the help of suitable tools: they can reach even thirty cm in depth. For multiplication, it is sufficient to bury part of a briar about five cm deep: it is possible to carry out this operation in a pot, but it is then necessary to move it into the ground so that the plant has sufficient space for growth.

Horseradish: Commercial products

Horseradish is found on the market in the form of a base substance of creams and products for external use, mainly aimed at solving problems related to the skin. However, there are many systems of consumption for internal use, which can be aimed at various types of disturbances. The parts containing the greatest amount of active ingredient are certainly the roots and the rhizome: they are also the most tasty parts. However, the leaves are also widely used, for example in the consumption of salads made from mixed herbs, or boiled and eaten for their vermifuge action. Alongside vitamin C, horseradish offers a vast amount of calcium, sodium and magnesium, all of which are important substances for an individual's physical well-being. Finally, horseradish can be found as a base for antibiotic or expectorant syrups. The consumption in the culinary field, even in the presence of particular ailments, finally offers facilitations for digestion and further protection for the intestine.

Horseradish, horseradish

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is one of the oldest crops and often grows wild along the paths. The plant is considered a pointer plant for fallow gardens. Even after many years, when the flower beds have long since been dug, the horseradish shows that a vegetable garden had previously been created in its surroundings. The plant with sharp roots belongs to the Kreuzblütengewächse family (Brassicaceae).

Horseradish has been cultivated since the 12th century. Already Hildegard von Bingen mentions in their botanical writings the value of sharp aromatic roots as medicinal and spicy plants. Kren is called horseradish in Austria. The word "Krenas" comes from the Slavic and means "to cry" and is probably due to the fact that the eyes tear when rubbing the fresh - onion-like - tear poles. It is worth growing horseradish in the garden, because only the freshly dug bars still contain all the aromas and explain their fine sharpness in the kitchen. Grated horseradish is eaten with beef, sausages or smoked fish.

Folk flu remedies

Home cures or folk remedies have been recorded for centuries. Some remedies were rather unpleasant and medically unfounded. Ancient cultures relied on monkey shares, bat blood, lizard soup and a host of unsightly components to cure diseases. Fortunately, most of the truly odd cures disappeared over time. However, several traditional folk remedies can offer real help for colds and flu. You might also be surprised to find a couple of popular therapies already in fighting flu-medicine.


Long part of Chinese and Indian cultural healing practices, herbs play an important role in stimulating immune responses, improving respiratory distress or having strong antiseptic properties. Some to try are thyme, fennel and fenugreek. Find brewed tea (available at most health food stores) or add fresh herbs to boiling water and breathe in the steam deeply to bring relief. Flu chest congestion can be helped by these powerful plants.


Garlic, ginger, and horseradish have all been part of folklore remedies for generations. Modern studies support the health benefits of garlic by citing its sulfur compounds. This natural infection fighter strengthens the immune system and prevents cell damage. Spicy horseradish flavor can open sinuses and facilitate breathing. Turmeric, another healing spice, brings anti-inflammatory effects and packs an immune punch. Use these freshly grated healing ingredients in foods when you are sick. Add a tablespoon of horseradish to a glass of tomato juice. Put fresh garlic or turmeric in soups. For stomach upset or nausea that accompanies the flu, a cup of ginger tea or a piece of candied ginger can tame the tummy.


As part of Aboriginal tribal healing for colds, eucalyptus was used in steam pits to open sinuses. We now find it in many over-the-counter products for congestion relief, cough drops in Vicks Vaporub Ointment, for the same reasons Native Australians discovered centuries ago. Herbalists also recommend eucalyptus tea as a useful sinus remedy.

Wild Cherry Bark

Native Americans have found the bark of wild cherry or Prunus serotina to be helpful in calming coughs. Once brewed as a tea, it has been reported to soothe the pains of childbirth and digestion as well as release chemicals to quell chronic cough. Now, you will find wild cherry extract in over-the-counter cough medications. A substance called benzaldehyde in wild cherry functions as an expectorant to loosen phlegm, according to James E. Robbers, Ph.D., of Purdue University.

Chicken soup

Grandma's chicken soup really had healing properties, scientists now say. Combinations of soup ingredients and heat work as tasty flu medicine. Carrots, celery, onions and garlic all come with high doses of vitamins necessary for the immune system and are common ingredients in chicken broth. The broth adds some needed liquid, which is useful for dehydrated, flu-ridden patients. Hot, steamy soup also helps open the nasal passages to make breathing easier.


Many cultures have regarded honey as a wonder drug and folklore remedy for all kinds of conditions. Some studies have suggested honey no longer has healing or soothing properties for the sick. Try a dose of honey in hot tea for a cough or sore throat. Be careful, as babies have a risk of contracting honey botulism, so be sure to only give to babies over 12 months of age.

Lemon and cinnamon

Add some lemon to the flu tea, to vitamin C, a vital infection fighting nutrient. According to tradition, lemon was used to treat depression, fight acne, and treat flu and colds. Cinnamon, highly valued for centuries for its flavor and healing qualities. continues to be a popular flu remedy due to its antiviral qualities. Always remember to be safe when using a natural flu treatment by consulting a doctor before use.

Cultivation and planting

In the bed, horseradish develops into a spreading plant. The edible taproot of the horseradish plant develops several lateral roots, the so-called "feeder", on which it is propagated. You get it at the time of planting in the trade. Make sure the rhizomes are one to two centimeters thick and 25 to 30 centimeters long. If necessary, grab the coolest stake possible from the greengrocer and place them - just like the Fechser - from early April to early May in a sunny corner of the garden about 15 inches deep and slightly sloping into the ground.
The sowing distance is at least 60 centimeters. These seemingly large distances are necessary because a horseradish plant needs a lot of space around it. Then cover the place several centimeters with garden soil or Reifkompost. If you want to harvest larger quantities, plant it in deeply loosened beds with a sufficient layer of compost at a distance of 70-100cm and row spacing of 15-20cm

Horseradish needs constant but moderate moisture to form beautiful roots


Over the millennia, since its invention at the time of Galileo Galilei (who enunciated the principles of motion), different types of motorcycles have been made, which in turn have generated different types of motorcyclists by asexual reproduction. Among the main types universally recognized we find:

Slave trade motorcycle [easy shit | shit]

Mainly used in China, India, Malaysia, and illegally on the border between Abruzzo and Svervegia for the trafficking of Mario Magnotta clones. This vehicle has a purely utilitarian purpose, certainly not recreational (especially for slaves) and has the ability to transport an unlimited number of living beings, even if, above 4-5 individuals, it is necessary to reduce the specific weight of each one to be able to to carry. A common practice to achieve this is dismemberment or, with the politically-correct term used by the sensitive slaveholder, the creative repositioning of the body masses.

Dead motorcycle [easy shit | shit]

Usually filled with beach mats, Super Tele and towels, it is used for the carefree punitive outings of bikers, goths, goths, dooms, Space Marines and other races of metalheads. These slow and heavy motorcycles have very noisy engines (almost exclusively American horses with aerophagia are used to make them) and often have saddlebags that house many garden gnomes ready to help the owner to lift the bike in the unfortunate case of a fall ( before they used the smurfs but they proved to be too fragile in case of a fall, they also stained the road in blue which is not beautiful).

Pocket Motorcycle [easy shit | shit]

Also called folding it is a very small and handy type of Japanese motorcycle, light and available in practical single blisters. It can reach speeds unimaginable for other bikes and can perform incredible decelerations, especially near hairpin bends, SUVs and concrete traffic dividers. It is the type of motorcycle preferred by those looking for speed and handling, as well as inexplicably the most purchased gift to wealthy husbands of a certain age from bored young wives. With the evolution of technologies (such as nanocavals, much smaller horsepower that allow you to put even 130 horsepower into an engine where barely a handful of them used to fit) the speeds reached by these racing cars approach the threshold of the improbable allowing you to go back in time (the paradox of Garibaldi's landing on a Platonic turbocarbon Hayabusa is famous).

Toy motorcycle [easy shit | shit]

Special motorcycles made in search of extreme, innovative or fashionable aesthetic solutions, exclusive to children who can shell out the staggering figures (but also from "no tonight" or "I have my things") necessary for the purchase. These bikes are not suitable for traveling, but they are a great way to show off in front of the bar (hence the name baretto racer) a bit like the Cayenne della Porche, or for journeys of 500 meters, strictly in flip-flops and with an umbrella under your arm, between a second home by the sea and the beach. During these movements it is great joy of the motorcyclist to terrorize, with the roar of the engine and the laser sight of the lighthouse, the little families who go to the sea holding hands, forming a human chain even 6-7 meters wide (in these cases , since toy motorcycles are less robust than dead ones, the shrewd motorcyclist always passes over the youngest child, to avoid damage to the fairing)

Off-road bike [easy shit | shit]

Also known as hog motion, is suitable for rolling in mud (but some disciplines also include other materials of the same color and texture). They can be used on any terrain thanks to the knobbly tires (unlike toy motorcycles which, equipped with heeled tires, are good for strolling along the promenade or waiting on the sidewalks). They juggle without problems on mud, gravel, asphalt, sand, water (currently only the Jesus model), precious gems, teeth, Salerno-Reggio Calabria, beet fields and the backs of bathers lying on towels. The social status of the motorcyclist of this kind is distinguished by the level of mud coverage: the beardless are covered only up to the ankle, the guru they need a mouthpiece to breathe through the layer of mud that covers them. Natural enemy of the off-road motorcyclist is the old man, angry individual who attacks the off-roader with the billhook on sight, due to the skidding in the middle of the tomato field found the night before. In this regard, there are those who argue that the famous crop circles are due to the labyrinthine attacks of a giant off-roader, but all the traps placed to capture the elusive specimen had no effect.

Fifty [easy shit | shit]

Better known as motion of the poor, is the typical moped of the boy or the poor man. Ignition, carburetion and road holding are directly proportional to the amount of snot and / or prayers uttered while driving. Obviously the theft and fire of the fifty are proportional to its value and / or to the frequency of use. The front wheel and the rear wheel are held to the vehicle as a whole by force of mind alone, ie snot and / or prayers from the driver. These mopeds also have a very advanced teleportation system: just leave it in the dark and. disappears !! This functionality was implemented for the first time in the very famous Hello!!. We remind you that the chances of falling increase in proportion to the quantity of alcohol and light and / or heavy drugs taken within 4 6 hours. It is also recalled that i fifties they have a special combined manual / verbal ignition called in technical / mechanical jargon "mmocc'a chi te stramourt vu partoj we trmòn!" (translated that is to say: in the oral orifice of someone who is dead to you, you want to leave, we trimone (man with three hands [[a bitonto also assumes the meaning of masturbation with anal stimulation practiced precisely by 3 hands in the asshole.) , consists in pedaling harder and harder while pronouncing the "magic" words, 45% of the time you need more invocations to get it started, while the other 55% of the time you have to change fifty (some try to change the type of blasphemy but always with poor results).

Plant and cultivate

robustness: rustic

exposure: full sun

Soil type: rich in humus, well drained

Soil acidity: neutral

Soil moisture: costs

use: vegetable garden

Planting, in pots: spring autumn

Multiplication method: seedlings and cuttings in spring, division of the tuft in autumn

Format: no size

Diseases and pests: disease resistant

German mustard or cappuccino, scurvy herb, Brittany cranes, horseradish. the names do not fail to refer to horseradish.

Known and used since ancient times, horseradish is a medicinal plant that can be introduced into the kitchen, as a condiment.

Perennial, it is cultivated for its whitish, long (60 cm long) and fleshy taproot. Its flavor is pungent. Horseradish is mostly used raw and rapped, like mustard, to flavor dishes.

Its foliage is composed of long medium green leaves with wavy branches and crenate margins. If you crumble them between your fingers, you will feel their pungent aroma reminiscent of the root.

In early spring, horseradish produces small white flowers with little decorative interest, which will then give small round fruits. The plant therefore measures almost one meter in height.

Horseradish - garden

cheesecake Cheesecake
Cold cake with a base covered with a layer of cream cheese. The base consists of pasta or biscuits moistened (with coffee, syrup or liqueur), or crumbled and mixed with egg yolk or butter, or with sponge cake or shortcrust pastry. For the cream, fresh and very soft cheeses such as ricotta, mascarpone or other spreads are used. The cake is often enriched with fresh, candied, dried or chocolate fruit.

Traditional Scottish dessert consisting of a mixture of whipped cream, whiskey, honey (preferably heather) and fresh raspberries, with toasted oatmeal soaked overnight in a little whiskey. In some cases the whipped cream is replaced by cream cheese crowdie, in others whiskey is not used. It is served by bringing dishes with the individual ingredients to the table, so that everyone can prepare their own dessert.

Christmas Pudding (or plum pudding, or plum duff) Christmas pudding
Main English Christmas cake, round in shape and based on eggs, almonds, candied fruit, rum and spices, prepared in Advent and brought to the table on December 25th. It is usually served flambéed and decorated with a holly.

Cupcake (or fairy cake) Cake in a cup
Sponge cake cooked in a baking dish, a baking paper mold similar to the one used for the preparation of muffin. The variant Butterfly cake it has the upper part made up of a layer of buttercream in the shape of a butterfly, and is generally prepared for birthdays.

Pasta bundles consisting (in the sweet version) of flour, potatoes, or bread. They can be filled or have other ingredients combined with the dough. They are steamed or baked, boiled, or fried.

1. it is fatter than ice cream, on average 50-60% more, therefore with more calories

2. it has a lower density than the ice cream, since the producers add air to the ice cream almost doubling its volume, without increasing the cost, however, the ice cream contains less air, making it creamier

3. it is served at a temperature lower than that of ice cream, and stored at a temperature 10 degrees lower

Jam Roly-Poly (or dead man's arm, or dead man's leg)
Traditional dessert consisting of a pastry made with lard, flour, breadcrumbs, raisins and spices, covered with jam and rolled up, then steamed or baked.

Knickerbocker glory
Ice cream with pieces of fruit, jelly, meringues and liqueur. Layers of these flavors are alternated in a tall glass and coated with different types of syrup, peanuts, whipped cream and cherry.

Lemon Curd (or fruit curd) Lemon curd
Cream based on lemons, lime, oranges or raspberries, egg yolks, sugar, fruit juice and grated citrus peel. It is used as a dessert.

Madeira cake
Very buttery cake with lemon flavor and very compact texture, used as a base for two or more tiered cakes decorated with sugar paste, or prepared to be served on its own, usually with afternoon tea.

Sweet round cake with a hemispherical top without coating glaze, similar to plum cake. It is baked in the oven and packaged in single portions, and is found in numerous varieties depending on the ingredients with which it is stuffed (blueberries, chocolate, cucumbers, raspberry, cinnamon, pumpkin, walnut, lemon, banana, orange, peach, strawberry, almonds , carrots).

plum cake
Cake made of plums (plum), flat in shape and packaged with shortcrust or leavened dough, similar to a tart.

Pudding (sweet)
Similar to pudding, it consists of a mousse of sugar or other sweet ingredients with thickeners such as gelatin, eggs, raisins, dried figs, almonds and other ingredients. It is eaten as a dessert or snack. Among them: Christmas Pudding (see above).

Queen of puddings (or Monmouth pudding)
Traditional dessert, consisting of a thick base of baked breadcrumbs, sprinkled with jam and covered with meringue.

Rhubarb crumble Crumbled with rhubarb
Typical homemade dessert consisting of stewed rhubarb stalks covered with a crumbly mixture of butter, flour and sugar. The cake is baked in the oven until the topping becomes crisp.

Rhubarb can be substituted or accompanied by another fruit (apple, blackberry, peach, gooseberry or plum), and then the name of the dessert changes accordingly (e.g .: Apple Crumble).

Spotted dick pudding
Kind of pudding containing dried fruit (sultanas or raisins), usually served with custard (custard).

Sticky toffee pudding
High-calorie steamed dessert, with the appearance of a spongy and moist focaccia, prepared with butter and dates cut into small pieces, covered with caramel sauce and usually served with custard or vanilla ice cream.


Drink based on water and rum with the possible addition of lemon or lime juice, cinnamon or sugar, rich in vitamin C.

Milkshake Milkshake
Fruit smoothie (bananas, strawberries.) In milk and crushed ice.

Considered an essential part of an Englishman's life, it is drunk throughout the day and sometimes even with meals. Some places serve it together with a set of 3 hourglasses, for 3, 4 and 5 minutes (shown), turned upside down when the tea is poured into the water.

Sweet / salty foods

Cold cake originally from New York, consisting of a pastry or biscuit base covered with sweetened cream cheese. It can be served with strawberry or chocolate sauce, caramel, jelly and berries or fresh fruit.

Savoury foods

Bacon and eggs
Scrambled eggs (scrambled), fried with slices of bacon, form the basis of full English breakfast.

Meat and vegetable dish with curry, accompanied by bread naan, broken with the hands and used to collect the sauce of curry spicy straight from the pan. It can be accompanied by appetizers or side dishes such as bhajis onion, samosas, poppadums or creamy toppings.

Bangers (or sausages) and mash Sausages and mashed potatoes
Traditional dish consisting of mashed potatoes and pork, beef or Cumberland sausages. It is typically served in pubs in several variations: with onion sauce, fried onions, baked beans and peas.

Bubble and squeak
Traditional dish consisting of fried vegetables left over from a main meal (dinner), although today there are frozen or canned packs. Contains mainly potatoes and cabbage, but also carrots, peas and Brussels sprouts. The minced vegetables, with the possible addition of meat, are fried in a pan together with mashed potatoes or mashed roasted potatoes until the dough becomes golden on the sides. It is often served in full English breakfast.

Chicken pie Chicken pie
Savory pie filled with chicken and mushrooms, prepared with a pastry shell brisé (or puff pastry), served for brunch, a dinner with friends or a trip.

Cornish pasty
Crescent-shaped appetizer with folded edge, consisting of shortcrust pastry, semi-puff pastry or puff pastry filled with beef, vegetables (potatoes, rutabaga, onion) and seasonings.

Cottage pie (or shepherd's pie)
Beef or mutton pie, coated with mashed potato crust.

Pasta balls or bundles obtained (in the salty version) from a mixture of flour and lard with water, flavored with herbs or cheese and seasoned with salt and pepper. They are dropped into a pot or saucepan containing a boiling stew or soup, where they swell and become soft on the inside and moist on the outside. There is also a version prepared with a vegetable fat.

Fish and chips
Fillet of white fish (usually cod, haddock or plaice) fried in flour batter and served with fries in sticks, chosen from the floury cultivars (Maris Piper, King Edward or Desiree). It is often accompanied by peas, boiled to form a lumpy soup.

Fish cake (or fishcake) Fish pie
Croquette-like food, consisting of filleted fish and potato pie coated in breadcrumbs or batter, and fried. It is often served in pubs.

Fish pie (or fisherman's pie) Fish pie
Traditional white fish pie (usually cod, haddock or halibut) in white sauce, made with firm cheese Cheddar or the milk in which the fish was cooked. Langoustines are often added (prawns) and hard-boiled eggs. It is baked in the oven in a deep dish, usually without the pastry coating used in the main cakes, but with a topping of mashed potatoes, sometimes with the addition of cheese or vegetables such as onions and leeks.

Traditional Scottish dish, consisting of a sausage of sheep entrails (heart, lung, liver) minced together with onion, kidney fat, oatmeal, salt and spices, mixed with broth and boiled for about three hours. It is served with neeps and tatties (rutabaga and potatoes), passed separately and accompanied by a dram (glass of Scotch whiskey). It is also presented on the table with other side dishes or served with the dressing of a whiskey-based sauce.

Meatball, beef or chicken, minced, pressed and generally grilled. The term also indicates a sandwich filled with a Hamburger, sauces and various condiments.

Plate of meat and vegetables cut into cubes, sometimes leftover, and cooked with spices or onion.

Jellied eels Eels in jelly
Traditional dish consisting of chopped eels, boiled in broth seasoned with spices, left to cool and lay until jelly is formed. It is eaten cold, served with a particular spicy vinegar.

Kedgeree (or: kitcherie, kitchari, kidgeree, kedgaree or kitchiri)
A dish consisting of filleted cooked fish (sometimes smoked haddock), boiled rice, parsley, hard-boiled eggs, curry powder, butter or cream, and sometimes sultanas.

Lancashire Hotpot
Easy to prepare dish, consisting of lamb or mutton and onion, covered with sliced ​​potatoes, cooked in the oven for a whole day in a heavy saucepan and over low heat.

Traditional Welsh dish consisting of a coastal seaweed (laver) fried, edible and rich in dietary minerals, in particular iodine and iron.

Onion rings Onion rings
Onion rings passed in batter and fried, served as a snack during an aperitif or to accompany meat dishes and sandwiches with Hamburger.

Pie and mash
Mess of meat (pie) and mashed potatoes (mash), commonly served on one side of the plate along with a parsley-based green sauce (liqueur or liqueur sauce, non-alcoholic), traditionally made with water from the preparation of stewed eels.

Plowman's lunch
Dish served in pubs consists of a piece of cheese, pickles and pickled onions and a piece of bread.

Pork pie Pork pie
Traditional dish consisting of a pie of coarse minced pork and pork jelly enclosed in a sheet of crispy pastry. Si mangia di solito freddo come snack o contorno, ed è prodotto in contenitori che gli conferiscono una forma regolare.

Zuppa preparata facendo bollire in acqua e/o latte farina d'avena, oppure semolino, riso, frumento, piselli, orzo o farina di mais. Si consuma a colazione, con eventuale aggiunta di zucchero o panna.

Pudding (salato)
Massa solida ottenuta dalla miscelazione di vari ingredienti, anche salati o a base di carne, con farina di grano o di altri cereali. È simile a una torta, a un pasticcio o a una salsiccia. Può essere cotto al forno o bollito, e si consuma sia come pietanza principale sia come dessert. Varianti:
• Black (o blood ) pudding - Ha l’aspetto di una salsiccia scura, è preparato con sangue e grasso di maiale e si mangia al breakfast
• White pudding - È a base di carne varia e cereali
• Yorkshire pudding - Pastella salata fatta con farina di grano e cotta al forno, che accompagna il roast beef o altre preparazioni ricche di intingoli.
Esistono anche pudding vegetariani.

Roast beef Manzo arrosto
È il piatto nazionale inglese, servito con patate al forno, horseradish sauce (salsa al rafano) e verdure miste cotte al vapore.

Panini imbottiti di vari tipi uno particolare è quello con la marmite, crema spalmabile salata color marrone scuro ottenuta dall'estratto di lievito, dal sapore molto pronunciato.

Shepherd's (o cottage ) pie

Steak and ale pie
Tradizionale pasticcio di carne, costituito da carne di manzo cotta in umido, salsa, birra ale ed eventuali verdure, il tutto racchiuso in un involucro di pasta frolla. Viene servito di solito con patatine tagliate a fette spesse e fritte nel grasso di manzo (steak chips).

Steak and kidney pie
Piatto caratteristico costituito da un pasticcio riempito con un cubetti di rognone (di bue, agnello o maiale) cotto in sangue di mucca e lievito. Viene condito con cipolla fritta e un intingolo preparato con brodo di manzo conservato sotto sale, aromatizzato con salsa Worcestershire e pepe nero e infittito con farina raffinata, burro maneggiato ( beurre manié ) o amido di cereali ed eventualmente birra ( ale o stout ). Il rivestimento è una sfoglia preparata con acqua bollente ( hot water crust ), pasta sfoglia o pastafrolla.

Piatto simile allo Yorkshire pudding, ma con salsicce annegate nella pastella e poi arrostite.

Welsh rabbit (or Welsh rarebit)

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