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Muraiola is the common name of Parietaria officinalis, also known as vitriol herb due to the fact that the leaves of the plant can be used and have been widely used to clean the glass of bottles. The parietaria or muraiola is a perennial herbaceous plant typical of the Mediterranean areas, which grows and extends over old walls, rocky areas, along hedges and woods at altitudes of 600 -700 meters. The family of belonging of this plant species is that of the Urticaceae, the same as the nettles, to be clear, but the muraiola is not as dangerous as the nettles, even if it is called vitriol grass which does not refer to the famous poison, but to the cleaning capacity of the leaves. Indeed, in the past, the masonry (rubbing it on the affected parts) was used to soothe the itching caused by contact with nettles. This plant has a low, erect, red and hairy stem, with a height of between ten and thirty centimeters. Some varieties of the same can even reach 70 centimeters in height. The leaves are oval and lanceolate; the flowers are small, greenish in color and grouped under the leaf axil. The flowering of the walls takes place between June and October. The plant prefers dry, but well-drained soils. It can be responsible for some spring allergies due to the action of its pollens. But the importance of the walls is purely officinal. For this purpose, the aerial part of the plant is used, the leaves are cleaned and dried quickly in a shady area and the juice. The harvest of the medicinal parts of the plant must take place in the hottest months. The greatest concentration of active ingredients is found in the fresh plant, but they can be maintained by keeping the dried parts in a tightly closed container.


The main effects of the parietaria are diuretics and anti-inflammatories. The diuretic action is due to the presence of flavonoids and potassium salts, so much so that in ancient times, the plant was used to treat kidney stones and gravel. Other constituents of the masonry are: mucilage, bitter substances, glycolic acid and glyceric acid. The presence of these acids would have a protective function of the liver and kidneys, which, combined with the action of flavonoids and tannins, would produce an improvement in liver function and diuresis with a preventive effect in the formation of stones or kidney dysfunctions. As for the beneficial effects on the kidney, it is said that a botanist of the 1700s became curious when he saw a bitch who ate when she was free. parietary grass at will and who, bound for a certain period of time, died. The cause of death was kidney stones, which probably occurred after the animal stopped eating the plant. The active ingredients of the paritaria would in fact avoid the excessive concentration of toxic substances in the kidney, favoring the elimination of chlorides. In addition to this effect, the flavonoids of the muraiola would also have anti-inflammatory properties at the level of the bladder, antispasmodic and antibacterial.


To exert their beneficial effects, the active ingredients of parietaria can be taken through various pharmaceutical forms, such as infusion, powder, fluid extract and mother tincture that is prepared from the whole fresh plant in order to obtain a titrated extract (percentage of active ingredients) equal to 65%. The infusion is prepared using a drug percentage ranging from two to five percent. The recommended dose is to drink several cups a day. Muraiola extract powder is contained in capsules of about 200 mg. The recommended dose for the capsules is 2, 4 capsules per day. The recommended dose for the fluid extract is 30 drops one to four times a day, while the recommended dose for the mother tincture is 40 drops three times a day. In the past, the parietaria was used together with other vegetable mixtures as an antirheumatic. Herbal doctors of the past advised that the best way to take the extracts of muraiola was the infusion, to be prepared with fresh leaves detached directly from the wall and placed in a liter of water. Preparations based on this plant are used in case of edema, cystitis, kidney disorders, hemorrhoids, but they also boast external uses, due to their additional soothing, healing and anti-inflammatory properties. The muraiola-based ointment can be applied to the skin in case of burns; the juice can be used as a mouthwash to soothe inflammation of the oropharyngeal tract. The extracts of parietaria are also included in the formulations of vaginal douches. The muraiola is also used in the kitchen. With the young leaves of the plant, deprived of the stem, you can prepare soups or dishes of boiled vegetables such as spinach. The leaves can be used for omelettes and fillings, but in all culinary uses it is better to limit the quantity and also add other vegetables due to the high oxalate content. The parietaria is also used to prepare green pasta. No toxic effects on the plant are reported, but before use or, better, medical prescription, it is useful to check for any cases of individual hypersensitivity.

Muraiola: Product costs

The sachets with parietary grass for infusion they cost just 4 euros; a 50 ml pack of mother tincture based on extracts of the same plant costs about 9 euros. If you buy online you must also add the cost of shipping costs which vary according to the seller or manufacturer. A pack of 400 mg capsules based on micronized powder and dry extract of muraiola costs about 9 euros. A 50 ml pack based on parietaria fluid extract costs 10 euros.

Capannoli in Province of Pisa (Tuscany) with it's 4,334 citizens is a place in Italy about 150 mi (or 241 km) north-west of Rome, the country's capital city.

Current time in Capannoli is now 08:43 PM (Monday). The local timezone is named Europe / Rome with an UTC offset of 2 hours. We know of 11 airports near Capannoli, of which 5 are larger airports. The closest airport in Italy is Pisa / San Giusto - Galileo Galilei International Airport in a distance of 15 mi (or 25 km), North-West. Besides the airports, there are other travel options available (check left side).

There are several Unesco world heritage sites nearby. The closest heritage site in Italy is Piazza del Duomo, Pisa in a distance of 17 mi (or 27 km), North-West. We encountered 5 points of interest in the vicinity of this place. If you need a hotel, we compiled a list of available hotels close to the map center further down the page.

While being here, you might want to pay a visit to some of the following locations: Ponsacco, Peccioli, Terricciola, Casciana Terme and Lari. To further explore this place, just scroll down and browse the available info.

Bronastodobni jantar na zahodnem in srednjem Balkanu


V članku se avtor ukvarja s problematiko dotoka jantarja na zahodni in srednji Balkan v času bronaste dobe (natanč-neje okoli 1600–900 pr. N. Št.) Ter njegovim kroženjem med regijami tega območja. Razpoložljivi podatki, povezani s to temo, so bili analizirani z uporabo različnih računskih method. Predhodno tipološko opredeljene jantarne jagode kažejo kronološke razlike, kar omogoča delitev na dva glavna sklopa, ki ju je mogoče pripisati srednji in mlajši oz. pozni bronasti dobi. Nekatere oblike so v uporabi v obeh obdobjih. Za številne tipe je značilen omejen obseg razprostranjenosti, ki verjetno govori za lokalno proizvodnjo. Tipe jantarnih jagod avtor primerja tudi z jantarnimi izdelki s sosednjih območij z jantarjem. Izbrani predmeti, ki se pojavljajo skupaj z jantarjem, dodatno osvetljujejo notranjo dinamiko kroženja jantarja in kažejo na potencialne udeležence izmenjave.


Biografija avtorja

Archeology Department
Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznań Collegium Historicum
ul. Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 7
PL-61-614 Poznań


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Muraiola, Erba vetriola - Parietaria officinalis: Propriet

Parti usate: Le parti aeree e le foglie.

Conservazione: Le foglie vanno essiccate velocemente all ombra e conservate in vasi di vetro.

Uso: Uso interno: succo delle foglie, infusi, decotti e tinture delle parti aeree uso esterno: applicazione delle foglie fresche contro scottature e infiammazioni della pelle, infusi e decotti delle foglie.

Note: La parietaria utile per la pulizia di incrostazioni dai vasi e dalle bottiglie: sufficiente introdurre una manciata di foglie, un po di acqua e scuotere velocemente.


Quella che comunemente viene detta muraiola una pianta dai molteplici nomi: c chi la chiama erba vento, gamba rossa oppure erba vetriola (nome che deriva dall usanza di utilizzare le foglie di q.

Pianta d'alluminio - Pilea cadierei

Questo genere comprende circa duecento specie di piante erbacee perenni, originarie di gran parte del globo le specie generalmente coltivate come piante decorative sono circa dieci, provengono dall'A.


Al genere doritis appartiene solo questa specie, che per si presenta in molte variet . Presenta pseudobulbi appiattiti, che producono alcune larghe foglie carnose a partire dalla primavera si svilup.


Le calanthe sono bellissime orchidee terricole, ne esistono alcune centinaia di specie, diffuse prevalentemente in Asia, con alcune specie in Madagascar e nelle isole dell Oceania sono state divise i.

Zooarchaeological evidence of functional and social differentiation in northern Italy between the Neolithic and Bronze ages

Many sites dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age have been investigated in northern Italy and have provided important zooarchaeological data. These sites are mostly settlements, but also places of worship and necropoli. While there are few zooarchaeological studies for the north-western part of Italy, the north-east and the Po Valley have been better investigated. Particularly important are the pile-dwellings and the Terramare sites of the Po Valley as they have a long chronological span, the animal bone assemblages are large and, therefore, highly statistically reliable, and have been excavated relatively recently. There is evidence of functional and social differentiation in the Bronze Age which coincided with the evolution of more complex societies. The most common type of functional differentiation began when human communities started to settle and is visible in the zooarchaeological record. Until the end of the Copper Age, animal bone assemblages are characterized by the presence of both domestic animals and a relatively important proportion of wild animals. In the early Bronze Age, domestic animals dominated, if not entirely, the assemblages, and a growing interest in secondary products is evident. From the Middle Bronze Age, the foundation of semi-permanent settlements multiplied in the Alpine area, in the internal areas (secondary valleys and areas far from the main watercourses) and at medium-high altitudes. This was coupled with the seasonal occupation of sites at a high altitude, used for the practice of vertical transhumance (alpine pasture). This phenomenon implies the existence of a settlement hierarchy and, therefore, of forms of social stratification within the framework of the settlement system. Unfortunately, the few zooarchaeological studies of sites located in the Emilia Apennines do not currently allow us to confirm the existence of such links between the mountain sites and those on the plain. Nevertheless, other evidence, such as the introduction of the horse, which is attested from the late Early Bronze Age onwards, can be interpreted as proof of social differentiation the horse was, in fact, considered a status symbol of the emerging warrior elite.

Very few animal burials, dated to the period studied, show the link between animal species (such as dog, cattle, deer) and cultural practices, although a number of examples of such a relationship are provided by the terramare necropoli. In conclusion, in light of current knowledge, it seems that zooarchaeology cannot confirm the existence of important forms of social stratification. This does not mean that they cannot necessarily be postulated: the complex use of territory and the evidently communal nature of funerary and cult ceremonies (which often involved animals) that characterize the Bronze Age make it difficult to exclude the existence of such stratification.

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