Honeysuckle Malvina - a productive variety with delicate fruits
More recently, honeysuckle could only be found in the forest. But recently, this culture has gained extraordinary popularity among gardeners. She is loved for the early (already at the beginning of June) berry ripening period, resistance to return frosts, and the ability to easily endure the harsh Russian winters. One of the best varieties of this berry culture is Malvina with aromatic, sweet and sour fruits without bitterness. It is no coincidence that this honeysuckle has such a romantic name - translated from the ancient Germanic Malvin means tender.
The distribution area of the northern honeysuckle berry is Kamchatka, Kuriles and Primorsky Krai. Among the varieties of this culture, a group of blue honeysuckles stands out, the fruits of which are edible. The berries, sweet with a slight sourness, have long been collected in the forests by local residents and not only made jam from it, but also harvested as a medicinal raw material.
The first description of honeysuckle appeared in the 17th century thanks to the explorer of Kamchatka V. Atlasov. In the 19th century, the gardener T.D. Maurits began cultivating this plant. Later varieties appeared in I.V. Michurin. Breeders have taken seriously the development of new types of honeysuckle. Now the Russian school of selection of garden berries from the Honeysuckle family is the best in the world. Many promising garden species of this culture were created at the Pavlovsk Experimental Station named after N.I. Vavilov, St. Petersburg. The elite is the Malvina variety, obtained here by M.N. Plekhanova and A.V. Kondrikova from crossing form No. 21–5 from Primorsky Krai with the Leningrad giant. In 2002, it was entered into the State Register for all 12 zones of cultivation.
Honeysuckle variety Malvina - the result of the work of Russian breeders
Description of the variety
Malvina is a medium-ripening variety. It is appreciated for its delicious fruits, in which there is absolutely no bitterness. Possesses excellent frost resistance: shoots can withstand extreme subzero temperatures (up to -50 ° C), roots do not freeze at -40 ° C, flowers and ovaries are not damaged at -8 ° C. Resistance to low temperatures allows you to grow the crop in regions with cold climates. Malvina practically does not get sick, very rarely is exposed to pest attacks.
In the Malvina variety, the fruits are shaped like a pear.
It is a medium-sized deciduous shrub with an oval crown. Straight shoots are thin, pubescent. At a young age, the branches are light green in color. Over time, the bark takes on a brown hue and cracks, exposing the reddish wood. The leaves are large, in the form of an elongated oval. The leaf blade is dark green, straight, up to 6 cm long, 3 cm wide. Honeysuckle blooms with bell-shaped pale yellow flowers.
Honeysuckle Malvina is a perennial shrub with a rounded crown and straight shoots
The berries of a bluish-blue hue have an elongated pear-shaped shape, the average weight is just over 1 g. The skin is dense, without pubescence, with a gray waxy coating. Delicate aromatic pulp, sweet and sour taste, received a score of 4.4 points.
This is one of the most productive varieties of honeysuckle, in industrial plantings they get 48.9 kg / ha, from a bush - 1.6 kg, with good care up to 3 kg. Differs in early maturity - berries appear already in the 3rd year, the bush retains good productivity for 25-30 years.
Malvina is self-fertile, additional pollinators are required to obtain a harvest - honeysuckle of other varieties: Blue Spindle, Morena, Blue Bird.
Malvina is one of the most productive varieties of honeysuckle
Video: varieties of honeysuckle
Rules for planting honeysuckle in the garden
In order for the bush to feel comfortable and bear fruit well, it is necessary to choose the right place.
Where to plant
The site must be well lit. With a thickened planting or when planted next to tall trees shading shrubs, fruiting will be weak. Malvina does not need protection from cold winds, it can be planted in an open place. The crop will grow in any soil, but the appearance will be brighter, and the berries will be larger if planted on well-fertilized loam with a low level of acidity.
The acidic environment negatively affects the plant: the leaves become pale, the shrub withers. Basins, places with low groundwater flow should be avoided: stagnant moisture is detrimental to the roots.
In the honeysuckle garden, a spacious area should be allocated, well-lit by the sun
For honeysuckle, you need to find a good company, as it is a cross-pollinated crop. Nearby should be planted 3-4 bushes of other varieties with the same flowering period. At least 1.5 m should be left between the plants so that the widely spread bushes do not touch each other: the branches of the honeysuckle are very fragile, they can break off with a strong bend.
Berry bushes can be arranged in a group in a corner of the garden or planted in a row at the border of the site, forming a hedge from them. Honeysuckle will get along well next to black currants.
Honeysuckle bushes can be planted in a row, marking the border of the site
The optimal planting time is from August to November. By the end of the second summer month, honeysuckle has completed its growth processes, and a dormant period begins. It is undesirable to plant a crop in spring due to the early onset of the growing season - buds bloom at the end of March. Even when transshipping with a large earthen clod, plants react painfully to changes in habitat conditions, adapting for a long time.
Selection of seedlings
It is advisable to purchase container seedlings in fruit nurseries, where there is a large selection of varieties adapted to local conditions. Here you can also pick up pollinating plants. Better take root 2-year-old bushes up to 40 cm in height, with 2-3 branches. They must have a good root system, free from mold; branches are flexible, with buds.
When choosing seedlings, preference should be given to two-year-old plants in a container
2 weeks before planting, on a dug up and weed-free area, pits 40x40 cm in size are made. Drainage is laid at the bottom, a part of fertile land filled with 2 buckets of humus, 2 tbsp. l. superphosphate and 500 g of ash. An additional 10 kg of compost is added to the sandy areas. It is possible to improve the composition of the soil with the help of vermicompost: 1.5 kg of dry vermicompost or 3 liters of its solution are mixed with the earth, the soil is well shed. Such an organic fertilizer is much more effective than mineral mixtures.
For better survival, the seedlings are kept in a solution with Kornevin, Heteroauxin for several hours before planting.
Planting pits are prepared in advance so that the earth has time to settle.
Step by step process:
- An earthen mound is formed in the center of the pit.
- They put a bush on it, spread the roots well in different directions. Container plants are planted with an earthen clod.
A seedling with straightened roots is lowered into the prepared hole
- The seedling is covered. The root collar should be 5 cm buried in the ground.
- They make a hole around the bush, pour a bucket of water into it.
- Cover the soil with hay, straw with a layer of 10 cm.
Important! After planting, honeysuckle bushes are not pruned, as is done in other berry crops - shortening delays their growth and fruiting.
Video: planting honeysuckle
Honeysuckle cultivation technology
The first two seasons only need to water, loosen and mulch the soil. Young plants do not need feeding and pruning.
Watering and loosening
Honeysuckle thrives in regions with high humidity, needs regular watering, especially in dry summers. They moisten the bushes 5-6 times per season, spending an average of 15 liters per plant. It is better to use water that is settled, heated in the sun. With a lack of moisture, the taste of the berries deteriorates. Abundant watering is especially necessary in late May - early June - it contributes to an increase in yield and an increase in the mass of berries by 15%. When pouring fruits in dry weather, the volume of water is increased to 3 buckets per bush.
Water is introduced into the irrigation grooves made around the shrub, or using a hose with a spray. However, during the flowering period, sprinkling is not carried out so as not to wash off the pollen from the flowers.
Honeysuckle is a moisture-loving plant that needs regular watering
After watering or rain, the moist soil is shallowly loosened, taking care not to damage the roots that come out close to the surface. To reduce moisture evaporation and stop the growth of weeds, you can use mulching with hay, straw, compost.
In the third year, in the spring, the berry is fed with nitrogen fertilizers (30 g of urea / 10 l). Honeysuckle does not like mineral supplements too much, so it is better to use organic. After the snow melts, 10 kg of humus is scattered under the bush. Ash (1 l / 10 l) is introduced into the phase of bud extension and ovary formation. At the end of the season, fertilizing with compost (5 kg) and ash (100 g) with the addition of superphosphate (40 g / m2) will help to restore the strength of the shrub and increase its winter hardiness.2). Once every 3 years in the fall, it is recommended to feed the honeysuckle with potash fertilizers (15 g / m2), increasing the resistance of plants to diseases.
Honeysuckle prefers organic fertilizers to mineral fertilizers, which are scattered under the bush or applied in the form of a solution
Advice. In autumn, it is useful to fertilize with natural fertilizer HB 101 (1 ml / 20 l / m2) using a sheet method or watering at the root. This preparation is a natural substance, which contains silicon dioxide, sap of long-lived trees - cypress and Japanese cedar.
The first 2 years are not pruned, from the third year they begin to form a sparse bush. Honeysuckle is prone to thickening, so they thin out the crown, leaving 5 healthy strong branches, cut out root shoots, small twigs, tops. Since the buds are located on the upper part of the shoots, they cannot be cut off from fruiting shrubs. Thinning pruning is carried out after the end of leaf fall.
Regulatory pruning is necessary to form a sparse bush that is evenly sunlit and well ventilated.
In subsequent seasons, sanitary pruning is carried out in the fall: dry, diseased and broken branches are removed. After 5-7 years, the yield drops, the plant needs rejuvenating pruning. 2 old branches are cut under the root, replacing them with 3 young shoots. As a result of this annual pruning, the bush gradually rejuvenates.
Preparing for winter
Honeysuckle is a cold-resistant crop that tolerates even severe northern winters without loss. Spring cold snaps are not terrible for her either - before the late frosts, the culture already has time to bloom.
Northern berry is not afraid of frost and does not require shelter for the winter
In the fall, on the eve of the temperature drop, the bushes are watered (30 l / plant), a layer of compost is laid. With frosts above -40 ° C, slight damage to the tops of the shoots is possible, which are cut off in early spring.
There are several ways to breed honeysuckle.
- The culture reproduces easily vegetatively. Green cuttings 12 cm long are cut at the end of flowering, planted in a container with fertile soil, well moistened, and put under a film. 25 ° C is the optimum temperature for rooting. The greenhouse must be slightly opened for ventilation, to prevent the soil from drying out. The next fall, the grown plants are planted in the garden. These cuttings have the highest survival rate.
- The material for propagation by lignified cuttings is harvested at the end of the leaf fall. Annual shoots are divided into 20 cm pieces and stored in sand or sawdust. In the spring they are planted in a greenhouse at an angle of 45about, regularly watered and slightly opened for ventilation. A transplant to the site is carried out in the fall.
- The easiest way to propagate honeysuckle is with layering. In June, the top of the shoot is bent to the ground, sprinkled with soil with a layer of 5 cm, pinned and watered. Separate it from the mother plant and plant it next year in the fall.
- Honeysuckle reproduces very easily by dividing the bush. A bush no older than 5 years is dug up and divided into several parts with roots and each bush is planted separately.
- The seed method is rarely used because of the laboriousness of the process.
Protection against diseases and pests
Malvina practically does not get sick, in rare years, under the influence of weather and climatic factors, harmful fungi can appear on plants. Honeysuckle and parasitic insects are not particularly fond of, but preventive measures are necessary.
Table: diseases of honeysuckle
Photo gallery: external signs of diseases
The most annoying pests of honeysuckle are birds, especially sparrows and fieldbirds, which eat most of the ripe fruits. In order not to lose the harvest, the berries should be harvested as soon as they ripen. Another option for preserving the fruit is to cover the bushes with a net.
You can save the honeysuckle crop from birds by covering the bushes with a special net
Table: pests of bushes with a blue berry
Photo gallery: insects threatening honeysuckle
Reviews of gardeners about the Malvina variety
Malvina is about nothing. Small, sour, thick skin. The twigs are glued to her, like sea buckthorn. It can hang on a bush for a long time, does not crumble at all.
Malvin's honeysuckle is an unpretentious crop, valued for its early maturity - the berries can be harvested as early as the 3rd year after landing on the site. High winter hardiness allows you to grow the variety in regions with a harsh climate. The decorative appearance of the Malvina honeysuckle bush allows it to be used in garden design: using this plant, you can decorate any corner of the garden or create a fruitful green fence.
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